According to both the uneducated as well as those taught a few ahadith (in English), the Fiqh A’immah (the four Imams) appeared some two hundred years after the Prophet.
The Islamic system of governance neither theocratic, nor monarchic, nor oligarchic, nor democratic. It is neither capitalistic nor socialistic. It is Islamic.
The perspective of biological scientists has begun to change and gravitate towards skepticism regarding Darwinism