Ahadith from ‘Miftah-ul-Ma`ani’

Kitab al-Iman

Hadith No. 7:

`Ubadah bin Samit says the Prophet (saws) said: “He who said, ‘I bear witness that there is no deity save Allah, He is one, He has no partners, and Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and that `Isa is the slave of Allah, His slave-girl’s son,1 and a Word of His2 that He cast into Maryam, and a Ruh from Him,3 and that Paradise is true, and the Fire is true’ … Allah (swt) shall allow him entry into Paradise by any of the eight gates he preferered.”4

Commentary

1. Addition of the words “His slave-girl’s son” is to alert the Christians that a woman’s son could not have been divine and warn the Jews who cast aspersion to her.

2. Jesus Christ was called a Word of Allah, because he was born by a word of command, “Be” – and he was. It could also be to establish his position as a special person, as you say, “So and so is Allah’s sword, or, as in the Qur’an, ‘It was Allah’s camel,’ or House of God. (Mirqatu al-Masabih)

It is said that a Christian priest heard this Ayah and understood the word “Kalimatuhu” as meaning “a Word from Him, i.e., a part of Him” and remarked, “Do we understand Jesus as anything apart from this?” (Meaning, “a Word coming from Allah’s Person”). `Ali b. Hussain b. Waqid, who wrote “Kitab al-Nazaa’ir, remarked that Allah (swt) said, ‘He has subdued to you whatever is in the heaven and whatever is in the earth all of it from Him” (Jamee`am minhu).’ Did He mean, they are from Him, i.e., a part of Him?” The man understood the error in his understanding, and embraced Islam. (Al-Teebi in Sharh al-Mishkah)

3. There are two plausible explanations to the word Ruh of the original. One, the word means “mercy.” Second, he was called Ruh from Allah (swt) because he – Jesus – was born without a father, and his soul (Ruh) was blown directly into his mother’s womb.

The words “from Him” are to honor `Isa, peace be upon him. (Mirqatu al-Masabih)

Allah (swt) used the same word for Adam (asws) when He commanded the angels before his creation (38-72): “So, when I have fashioned him and have blown into him a spirit from Me, then fall you all in prostration unto him.” Here, too, Allah (swt) used the word Ruhi, which would literary mean ‘My spirit.’ But do the Christians accept the literal meaning, and apply to Adam (asws) as they apply to Jesus (asws)? [Ikmaal al-Mu`allim bi Fawaa’id Muslim, Sharh al Sunnah, Baghavi]

Again, while addressing the unbelievers Allah (swt) said (32: 9):

“Then He fashioned him (man) and blew into him, out of His spirit (i.e. the soul).”

Should the Christians still believe that the Qur’an confirms that Jesus Christ is God’s own spirit? (Au.)

4. We have Abu Hurayra’s hadith which says that everyone will enter Paradise through a gate most suitable to his character in this world. But some will have the choice to enter by the gate of their preference. (`Umdatu al-Qari)

All said, most scholars agree that entry into Paradise will only be after Reckoning and entry into the Fire, if sins are found and not forgiven by Allah (swt). This is the meaning that emerges after all ahadith of this nature and put to close scrutiny. (Al Kawthar al Jaari)

Hadith No. 8:

`Ali b. Abi Talib says the Prophet (saws) said: “A man does not truly believe1 until he believes in four (things):2 testify that Allah (swt) is one, that I, Muhammad, am His Messenger whom He sent with Truth, believe in death,3 believe in Resurrection, and believe in Qadr (Divine destiny and decree).”4 ~ Tirmidhi.

Commentary

1. The words, ‘A man does not believe,’ is denying the presence of belief, that is, whatever the avowal be. At the level of his heart, a man must also believe in these four things. (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

2. This leads to conclude that verbal testimonial is one of the pillars (of faith), implying that one must pronounce with the tongue after he has internally testified to it. It may also be to emphasize that while Allah (swt) knows the secrets, the judgment is by the apparent. (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

3. Raghib has commented that death is one of the means for obtaining blessings, so that, apparently death might be destructive, but, in truth, it is second birth – into eternity. It is a door to Paradise, the reason why Allah (swt) referred to it as a blessing when He said (67: 2), “He created death and life.” (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

It has been pointed out by several commentators that a man must believe in the death of the world and not, as the atheists claim, who think that the world has always been in existence, and will always remain in existence. (Many scientists, too, have maintained the belief that the universe is everlasting: Au.).

Nor should one believe in transmigration of the soul. It could also be to impress that death comes by Allah’s will and not because of a disease, as the doctors would say. (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh, Mashariq al-Anwar, Teebi)

4. That is, one must be of firm belief that all that happens in the world is as destined by Allah (swt) and decreed by Him. (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

 

Not all the articles of faith were meant to be counted in this hadith. Prophetic language adopts this style for emphasizing a point.  Otherwise, we know that there are other articles of faith apart from these (Au.).

Hadith No. 9:

Abu Dharr1 reports: “I went up to the Prophet. He was asleep. He had a white shirt on him. I went up to him again and he was asleep. Then I went again and he had woken up.2 I sat by him. He said, ‘There is no bondman who said, ‘There is no deity save Allah3 and then died4 on it but entered Paradise.’5 I said, ‘Even if he committed (sexual) adultery and committed theft?’ He said, ‘Even if he committed adultery and committed theft.’6 I said, ‘Even if he committed adultery and committed theft?’ He said, ‘Even if he committed adultery and committed theft.’ That happened three times.7 At the fourth time he added, ‘Even to Abu Dharr’s discomfort.’

 

(The narrator said), Abu Dharr left and he was repeating, ‘Even to Abu Dharr’s discomfort.’”8

Commentary

1. Abu Dharr is Jundub b. Junada of Ghifaar tribe. He belongs to the top cadre of the Companions, and one of their ascetics. He was an early convert: some say, the fifth in Islam. He went back to his people and stayed with them migrating to the Prophet after the battle of the Trench. Later, during the reign of `Uthman b. `Affan, he took residence in Rabdha (about fifteen miles from Madinah), dying there in the 32nd Hijri year. (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

2. This detail is not one of those trivial things that people say but rather the narrator wishes to emphasize his sharp ability to note every detail in order to impress on the listener the mien of the Prophet to make him feel as if he, the listener, was well-nigh himself present, standing before him. (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

3. The Prophet did not include belief in him as a Messenger perhaps because it is a well-known matter. (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

4. The word ‘then,’ of ‘then died’ is in keeping with the rule that the judgment will be by the final state (of body and heart). (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

5. The final fate would depend on whether Allah (swt) forgives all his sins to usher him into Paradise – if He so wills – or punish him according to his sins and then allow him into Paradise. (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

6. The Prophet saying, ‘Even if he committed adultery and even if he committed theft,’ is to make it comprehensive since sins are of two kind, either against the rights of Allah, such as adultery, or against the rights of the humans, such as theft. (So, both classes of sins are included as forgivable: Au.). (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

The statement, ‘Even if he committed adultery and even if he committed theft’ implies that those who committed major sins cannot be denied the possession of “Imaan.” (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh, `Umdatu al-Qari, Fath al-Baari)

And that people’s rights cannot be annulled because of death nor does it mean that those rights will never be compensated for by Allah (swt), in favor of anyone He intends to send to Paradise. (`Umdatu al-Qari)

7. One another derivable lesson is that those who commit major sins cannot be treated as the dwellers of Fire, but rather, if they entered, they would ultimately come out (`Umdatu al-Qari). But which does not mean at all that a man will enter Paradise even if he continued to commit adultery and theft. (Fayd al-Baari)

8. That is, would you like to limit Allah’s mercy? But His mercy is towards His creations, whether you like it or not. (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

The literal meaning of ‘Raghima anfu Abi Dharr’ would be, ‘even if Abu Dharr’s nose be in the dust,’ but proverbial meaning is, ‘even if Abu Dharr disapproves, or feels discomfort.’ (Mirqaat al-Mafateeh)

Al Teebi has said that some scholars have noted that some people make use of this hadith and others of this kind to go loose on deeds of obligation believing that abandoning Shirk (association) is enough to win salvation. This leads to folding up the Shari`ah’s blanket, erasing of the boundaries of illegalities, and that the encouragement to do good, or warnings over sins and disobedience are to no purpose. In fact, it leads to complete egress from the religion, disregard of the rules and principles, and entry into confusion and chaos, resulting in the destruction of this world and the Next. The effort should be to get the reports of this kind together to arrive at a conclusion which does not ignore any detail and reconciles every detail. (Fath al-Baari)

As for he who died on persisting with sins, the majority opinion is that, if he was of the believers, he will be under Allah’s own discretion. He might forgive him or punish him (21: 23): ‘He cannot be questioned about what He does.’ (Irshaad al-Sari)