Revelation by Angel into the Heart

[1] Abu Umamah reports that the Prophet said, “Ruhul Qudus1 blew2 into my heart3 that no soul will ever die until it has fully received its provision. Therefore, seek your provision in a goodly way. Let not delay in the provision coming your way lead one of you to seek it by sinful means; because what Allah has cannot be obtained except through His obedience.4” (Majma` azZawaa’id)

Haythamiyy wrote that one of the narrators in the chain, Qudamah b. Za’idah is unknown to him, but that others in the chain are trustworthy.5

Commentary

1. By Ruhul Qudus the allusion is to Jibreel. 

2. The textual “nafath” is for that a kind of blowing with the mouth, which does not contain saliva, as against “tafala” which is for a blow which contains saliva.

3. This is the fourth type of Revelation in which an angel inspires into a Prophet’s heart or soul.

When an angel inspires into a believer’s heart, it is called “Ilhaam.”

4. It appears that the allusion is to the special type of provision that is in store specifically for the believers since it is common observation that people earn the world through sinful means also, which does not has Allah’s approval (Au.).

Some scholars have said that provision earned through unlawful means is not to be counted as “rizq” (Al Tanwir).

Scholars have also remarked in this connection that whatever ‘little’ which is ‘just sufficient’ is better than what is ‘substantial’ but leads to heedlessness (Al Istizkaar).

Abu Hazim has said, ‘If what is just sufficient for you does not satisfy you, then there is nothing in the world that can satisfy you (Al Istizkaar).

5. Safiree wrote however, that Hakim declared this hadith Sahih, as in Fath al-Bari.

Revelation by Angel in Words

[1] Said the Prophet1: “Jibril said to me, ‘Take back Hafsa for she is a great fasting lady, a great vigilant at nights,2 and because she is your wife in Paradise.3’” (Tabarani, Sahih)

Commentary

  1. The background of the report is that once the Prophet had either divorced Hafsa, the daughter of `Umar ibn al Khattab, or had intended to do so, but Allah disapproved of it and sent Jibril asking him to withdraw his divorce or his intention (Au.).
  1. That is, she fasted most of the days, and stood in Tahajjud prayers a great part of the night – and perhaps even during the day.

The deduction is that he or she whose relationship with the Lord is well-established, but falls short in, say etiquettes, or personal interactions, (but who is not morally blameworthy), is not altogether a discreditable personality.

This establishes the criterion of judgment. A wife has to be judged by her devotion to her Lord, and not by her devotion to her husband (as thought by the Christians), or by her devotion to her in-laws (as among Hindus), or by her devotion to the kitchen (as among today’s Asian Muslims) [Au.].

  1. It is said that sometimes she spoke to the Prophet a bit rudely, was perhaps short tempered, and may be a little flamboyant. The Prophet had married her, apparently, because she – the daughter of a close companion `Umar – couldn’t find a match after her last divorce. But Allah’s own intervention informs us by implication, that she must have been a woman of high spiritual worth.

And Allah to testify the goodness of a woman is to be taken in all seriousness.

[2] Abu Hurayrah reports that the Prophet stood up and addressed the people. He mentioned belief in Allah and Jihad in the way of Allah as the best of deeds reckoned by Allah. He, Abu Hurayrah added: A man got up and enquired, “Messenger of Allah. What have you to say if I am killed in the way of Allah being patient, sincere, advancing, not retreating, will Allah expiate my sins?” He replied, “Yes.” Then he asked (after a while), “What was it that you said?” The man repeated what he had said earlier. He (the Prophet) said, “Yes.” Then he asked again, “What was it that you said?”1 The man once again repeated his words saying, “Messenger of Allah. What have you to say if I am killed in the way of Allah being patient, sincere, advancing, not retreating, will Allah expiate my sins?” He replied, “Yes, except for debts.Jibril whispered this to me (just now).”3 (Musnad of Ahmad)

Commentary

  1. According to the version in Sahih Muslim, the man had actually withdrawn and was leaving when the Prophet called him back to say, “Except for debts. Jibril whispered this to me (just now).”
  1. That is, debts are not forgiven, even if a man attains martyrdom. Debts are between man and man. And the general principle is that Allah will not intervene between man and man. They must settle their own accounts between themselves. Reports say that early in Madinah, the Prophet would not attend prayer of the Funeral Rites, if, upon inquiry, he learnt that the dead man had left debts. He would only do if someone promised that he would pay up on the man’s behalf (Kashf al Mushkil).

However, Qurtubi has written that the rule, namely, one must necessarily pay back his debts, applies to the situation where utmost tried, the man is unable to pay back. But, if he is sincere, and tries his best, but fails, then it is possible that Allah will obtain forgiveness from the lender (Daleel al Faliheen).

A hadith of Bukhari and others is the basis of the above opinion. It is as follows:

Abu Hurayra reports the Prophet: “Whoever took people’s money intending to return it, Allah will return it on his behalf; and whoever took it intending to squander it, will have Allah destroy it.”

Another implication is that the Prophet received Revelations apart from the Qur’an (Qari).

  1. This, and other similar reports, are the basis for the opinion among the scholars that whatever the Prophet said, in matters of Islam, had Allah’s approval. In this particular case, an exception left out, prompted Allah sending down Jibril to make the correction. Consequently, once a hadith is proven trustworthy, it must be handled with great care. It has Allah’s approval (Au.).

[3] `A’isha (ra) reports that after the Prophet had returned from the Battle of the Ditch,1 had put down the weapons and taken a bath, when Jibril came to him with his head filled with dust2 and said, “Have you put down the weapons? By Allah, I have not put them down.”3 The Prophet asked him, “Where to then?” He said, “There,” and pointed to Banu Quraidah. So the Prophet marched towards them too.4 (Bukhari)

Commentary

  1. That was in either the 4th or 5th year after Hijrah.
  1. Either `A’isha (ra) must have seen Jibril in human form and the Prophet told her who he was, or yet the Prophet informed her of Jibril’s arrival and his mission.
  1. This evidences that angels bear arms and fight along the believers so long as the believers are fighting to win Allah’s approval and do not show their back in the battlefield. If they do, the angels abandon them (Qari).
  2. The inference is that the Prophet did not go to war without Allah’s direcion (Ibn Rajab).

[4] `A’isha (ra) narrates that the Prophet said, “Jibril kept exhorting me about the neighbor until I thought he will include him among the inheritors.”1 (Ibn Majah)

Commentary

  1. Some scholars have suggested that in actual fact the Prophet was hoping that after Jibril had so often spoken to him about the rights of the neighbor, he would declare him as an inheritor along with the kinsfolk. That is, such was the Prophet’s own concern about the rights of the neighbors.

This hadith is in connection with Revelations to the Prophet involving Jibril speaking to him directly, without appearing in a form others could recognize him, otherwise, the social position of the neighbors is so important that the topic deserves a chapter by itself; nonetheless, a quick reminder: the concept of a ‘neighbor’ in Islam extends to Muslims as well as non-Muslim.