Inventors in the Islamic Civilisation (Part-2)


`Ammar al-Mawsilli (d. 400 H = 1009)

  • The first to innovate a method for treating visual impairment

Muhammad al-Karji (d. 419 H. = 1028)

The first to:

  • Invent “triangular array of the binomial coefficients”
  • Invent in his research works the mathematical “Surds”, sum of natural four squares and their cubes.
  • Formulate in the natural sequences

Al-Zahrawi (d. 427 H = 1035)

• The first to:

–  Establish surgery in the world
–  Write a book on surgery as independent science
–  Conduct surgery of gallstone
–  Succeed in the surgery of opening the throat
–  Devise binding the artery to stop bleeding
–  Develop pharmaceutical tablets in special molds (in 420 H)
–  Use coal to clarify syrup of simple honey

• The printing pioneer

Ibn Sina’ (d. 428 H = 1036)

• The first to:

–  Say that water transfers germs, which results in diseases
–  Classify and describe diseases
–  Diagnose paraplegia
–  Distinguish organic paralysis of the paralysis resulting from a central cause in the brain
–  Describe symptoms of elephantiasis
–  Describe Anthrax
–  Detect Ancylostoma
–  Anatomize the heart of the fetus
–  Clearly and thoroughly describe Jaundice
–  Distinguish diaphragm inflammation of pleurisy
–  Correctly describe meningitis
–  Perform hypodermic injection
–  Use Surgical anaesthesia
–  Accurately diagnose Costochondritis
–  Diagnose Liver Abscess
–  Discover that Localized Cancer gives the symptoms of General Cancer
–  Confirm the infection possibility of tuberculosis
–  Discover that sinking down of the earth is due to volcanic lava
–  Discover that the earthquake opens springs

Ibn al-Haytham/Alhazen (d. 430 H = 1038)

• The first to:

– Devise experimentation and controlled testing in his scientific inquiries.
– Explain and clearly draw the structure of the eye
– Use the darkened chamber to monitor the eclipse
– Say that vision is possible because of light rays emitting from the objects. Contrary to what                                                            Greek believed before that it is because of light rays emitting from the eyes.
– Explain phenomenon of rainbow
– Explain phenomena of solar and lunar eclipses
– Propose building dam on the Nile River in order to store water.

Al-Biruni (d. 440 H = 1048)

• The first to:

–  Say that the sun is at the centre of the universe, which refuted the early dominant theorem saying that the earth was at the centre of the universe
–  Invent a device to measure the density of the air
–  Clearly explain some phenomena related to the balance and compression of the liquid

Jabir b. al-Aflah (d. 450 H = 1058)

• The first to invent equation used in solving spherical trigonometry base.

Sa`id al-Andalusi (d. 462 H =1069)

• The first to write on the history of the science in the world

Ibn Sa`id (d. 475 H = 1082)

• The first to:

–  Develop machine for lifting heavy rocks
–  Invents mechanical air pump

Abu `Ubayd al-Bakri (d. 487 H = 1094)

• The first Andalusian Geographer whose books survived till today.
• The author of the first alphabetical gazetteer

Ibn al-Zurqalah (d. 493 H = 1099)

• The first to:

–  Demonstrate the rotation of the stars in elliptical orbits
–  Prove that the change in the distance between the earth and sun suits the advance of the balance points between day and night
–  Develop a method showing the use of the astrolabe with the monitoring guide.
–  Prove that the motion of the solar apogee relative to the fixed background of the stars is mostly 12.40 seconds per year.

Al-Ghazali (d. 505 H = 1111)

• The first to introduce the method of doubt and scepticism and explain the concept of the time.

Al-Khazin (d. 550 H = 1155)

• The first to:

–  Conduct experiments to find out the relationship between the weight of the air and the density.
–  Invent the qualitative weight

Ibn Zuhr (d. 557 H = 1161)

• The first to:

 –  Diagnose Pericarditis
–  Accurately describe abscess of mediastinum
–  Describe Acute Mediastinitis
–  Thoroughly describe stomach cancer
–  Invent nutrient enema
–  Describe Lice scabies

Al-Idrisi/ Dreses (d. 560 H = 1164)

• The first to:

–  Show by illustration that there is a dry ground beyond the Atlantic
–  Make a ball and draw on it maps of the earth
–  Write a book which deals with geography of the whole earth
–  Devise projection in mapping
–  Author a specialized encyclopedia of botany

Ibn al-`Awwam (d. 580 H = 1184)

• The first to invent drip irrigation method

Muhammad b. Rushd (d. 595 H = 1198)

• The first to:

– Monitor, see and write about the Sunspot
– Know by astronomical calculations the time of the passage of Mercury (planet) in front of the disk of the sun

Al-Jazri (d. 602 H = 1205)

• The first to devise water pump for pulling water.

`Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (d. 629 H = 1231)

• The first to:

–  Adopt rigorous scientific approach and sensory experiment
–  Correct errors of Galen by sound scientific outlook
–  Discover diabetes

Ibn al-Rumiya (d. 637 H =1239)

• The first botanist to scientifically describe and study the outer of plants

Al-Suri (d. 739H = 1241)

• The first to study herbs and plants in their natural surroundings in the company of a professional painter.

Ibn Yunus al-Mawsili (d. 639 H = 1241)

• The first to solve the problem relating to the establishment of a square equivalent to a piece of circle

Al-Hassan al-Marrakushi (d. 660 H = 1261)

• The first to use the meridians (longitudes)

Nasir al-Dine al-Tusi (d. 672 = 1273)

• The first to:

–  Set trigonometry as an independent discipline of astronomy
–  List the six distinct cases of a right triangle in spherical trigonometry
–  Prove that the sum of two numbers, each is odd, cannot be a square number; which prompted mathematicians to further analysis of numerical and geometrical progressions.

Hassan al-Rammah (d. 674 H = 1275)

• The first to produce torpedo equipped with the missile engines

Ahmad al-Qarafi (d. 684 H = 1285)

• The first to invent the clock alarming the time of dawn prayer with moving sculptures.

Ibn al-Nafis (d. 687 = 1288)

• The first to:

–  Discover pulmonary circulation and indicate alveoli and coronary arteries
–  Call to moderation in salt consumption

Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (d. 710 H = 1310)

• The first to give the satisfactory explanation of the rainbow

Zayn al-Din al-Amidi (d. 714 H = 1314)

• The first to invent prominent characters (reading means for the blind)

Ibn al-Durayhim (d. 762 H = 1360)

• The first to conceive the art of encryption and Cryptography

Al-Jaldak (d. 762 H = 1360)

• The first to give idea of use of mask in chemistry tests laboratories

`Ali b. al-Shatir (d. 777 H = 1375)

• The first to devise the mechanical clock

Ibn Khaldun (d. 808 H = 1405)

• The first to:

–  Speak about sociology and lay down its bases
–  Speak about the philosophy of the history
–  Introduce historical criticism
–  Introduce the labor theory of value
–  Write introduction which is more important than the book itself

Al-Kashi (d. 832 H = 1428)

• The first to:

–  Assume the management of Samarqand observatory
–  Introduce and use fractional decimal number

[Courtesy: Illuminating Portraits on the Arab-Islamic Civilization, by Dr.Shawqi Abu Khalil & Dr. Nizar Abazah]