Selection of Ahadith from a chapter titled Kitab al-Iman from the forthcoming collection called Miftah al-Ma`aniby Syed Iqbal Zaheer
(1). Abu Hurayrah has reported the Prophet (saws) as having said: “When Allah (swt) created the creation, He wrote with His hands upon Himself: ‘My mercy will prevail over My anger.'” (Muslim)
That is, He made it a Law unto Himself.
(2). Mu`dh ibn Jabal (ra) says the Prophet (saws) passed by me while I was riding a donkey. He said: “Mu`adh. Do you know what is Allah’s right upon the people, and what is that of the people upon Allah?” I said: “Allah and His Messenger know better.” He said: “It is Allah’s right upon the people that they worship Him and associate not aught with Him. And the right of the people upon Allah is that when they have done that He does not punish them.”
That is, if the people acknowledge Allah as their sole Lord, and worshipped Him in the more general sense of obeying Him through the guidance that the Prophet (saws) brought to them then it is their right that He not punish them. If He will reward them, it will be out of His mercy, as asserts another hadith.
(3). `Umar ibn al-Khattab says that on the day of Khayber some of the Companions of the Prophet went around (into the battle-field saying, “So and so is a martyr, so and so is martyr,” until they passed by a man and said the same. The Prophet said, “Not so. I saw him in the Fire because of a cloak or shirt that he stole from the war spoils.” Then the Prophet told me: “O `Umar ibn al-Khattab, go around and announce among the people that none but the believers will enter Paradise.”
“Therefore,” says `Umar, “I went through the crowds announcing that none but the believers will enter Paradise.” (Kitab al-Iman of Sahih Muslim)
What the Prophet meant by saying “Not so,” was to deny their claim that he was a martyr and that he would enter Paradise. Rather he was being (initially) punished for his theft, (after which alone he might proceed to Paradise: siz).
(4). Jabir said that Tufaylibn `Amr al-Dausi came to the Prophet (before Hijrah) and said: “Are you interested in a fort at the top of a mountain well supplied with military men and equipment?” [That is, would you like to migrate and take shelter in my fort? He was referring to a fort that the Daus had]. The Prophet asked, “Do you have (your) people behind you?” He answered: “I am not sure.” The Prophet did not respond to him.
When the Prophet had migrated to Madinah Tufayl b. `Amr also migrated to it,in the company of another person of his tribe. The man suffered severe fever and disturbed by, it took a long-edged arrow, slit the veins of his hand and died as a result of loss of blood. He was buried. Then he came into Tufayl’s dream, in a cheerful state, but he had his hands covered. He asked him how his Lord treated him. He said: “I was forgiven because of my migration to the Prophet.” Tufayl asked him: “But what happened to your hands?” He replied: “I was told, ‘We will not restore what you have damaged yourself.”
In this hadith is the evidence for the opinion held by the ahl al-sunnah that he who killed himself and died without repentance is not an unbeliever. It cannot be said of him that he is in the Fire. Rather, it is up to Allah to decide about him. The hadith also proves that sins are punishable as for instance the man was not forgiven his sin committed with his hands. (Sahih of Ibn Hibban)
(5). Anas b. Malik reports the Prophet (saws) as having said: “I have been ordered to fight the people1 until they bear testimony that there is no god save Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, (and until) they follow our Qiblah,2 eat of our slaughtered animals3 and Pray like we do. If they do that their life and property is forbidden to us, save for what is by right. They shall get what other Muslims get and they shall be obliged to give back what other Muslims do.”4 (Tirmidhi– Sahih)5
- Islam was sent by Allah (swt) in order that it might be established on earth. In the beginning the Prophet (saws) presented his message in a peaceful manner. He was not accepted. More! He was opposed by people who influenced others and prevented them from accepting the call. The Prophet bore it with patience: for full ten years. When the opposition did not subside, and the opponents continued to prevent others from accepting the call, the Prophet had to take up arms against them, that is, against those that were preventing the masses from embracing Islam.However, that incumbency of taking up the sword against the opponents was, as scholars have pointed out, for the Arabs of the Peninsula alone, where they had no choice:either they accepted Islam or departed from the land.That said, there is, in the words “I have been ordered”, hidden the message that it should not be expected that Islam will always prevail by the power of its message alone. There are plenty of people to whom the message is clear, reasonable and just, but they want to have none of it. Therefore, arms will have to be taken up against them. Truth will not prevail by peaceful means alone. (siz)
- Hence the scholars say that if some people, who profess to be Muslims, Pray and offer zakah but do not face the Qiblah of Islam, they will be fought against. (siz)
- That is, they should be Muslims like all Muslims, treating all that the Shari`ah has declared lawful as lawful and not treat certain animals unlawful to themselves. If on the other hand, they do not eat what the Muslims eat, then they would divide the ummah into sects and castes based on their eating habits, as other nations have done. (siz)
- That is, they shall be equal to all other Muslims in their rights and duties. In it is also the hint that the Muslims cannot be divided on the basis of nationalities, in any part of the world, with some having greater rights than others. Islam has no borders save with the non-Muslim world. The Prophet for instance gave the same rights to Salman the Persian, Suhayb the Roman, Bilal the Abyssinian, Abdullah b. Salam the former Jew, as he gave to the local Arabs. The state he set up was Islamic in its fullest sense and not a sham. (siz)
- The hadith is also in Bukhari, Abu Da’ud and Nasa’i. (Mubarakpuri)