The Fasts of Ramadan
1. Narrated Abu Salama bin ‘Abdur Rahman: that he asked ‘Aisha “How was the prayer of Allah’s Apostle in Ramadan?” She replied, “He did not pray more than eleven Rakat in Ramadan or in any other month. He used to pray four Rakat – let alone their beauty and length – and then he would pray four – let alone their beauty and length – and then he would pray three Rakat (Witr).” She added, “I asked, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Do you sleep before praying the Witr?’ He replied, ‘O ‘Aisha! My eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep.” [Bukhari]
2. Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, “Whoever fasted the month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith (i.e. belief) and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his past sins will be forgiven, and whoever stood for the prayers in the night of Qadr out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.” [Bukhari]
3. Abu Huraira related that Rasulullah said: “If anyone omits his fast even for one day in Ramadan without a concession or without being ill, then if he were to fast for the rest of his life he could not make up for it” (Bukhari).
4. Abu Huraira related that the Prophet said: “Allah, the Majestic and Exalted said: “Every deed of man will receive ten to 700 times reward, except Siyam (fasting), for it is for Me and I shall reward it (as I like). There are two occasions of joy for one who fasts: one when he breaks the fast and the other when he will meet his Lord” (Muslim).
5. Abu Huraira related that Rasulullah said: “Many people who fast get nothing from their fast except hunger and thirst, and many people who pray at night get nothing from it except wakefulness” (Darimi).
When to start fasting
6. Ibn Umar related that the Prophet said: “Do not start fasting unless you see the new moon, and do not end fasting until you see it. If the weather is cloudy then calculate when it should appear” (Bukhari, Muslim).
The Suhoor meal (which is eaten before dawn)
7. Anas related that Rasulullah said: “Take the Suhoor meal, for there is blessing in it” (Bukhari, Muslim).
Breaking your fast
8. Salman ibn Amir Dhabi related that the Prophet said: “Break your fast with dates, or else with water, for it is pure” (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi).
Fasting during a journey
9. Aisha related that Rasulullah was asked whether one should fast when on a journey, and he replied: “Fast if you like, or postpone it if you like” (Bukhari, Muslim).
Behavior while fasting
10. Abu Huraira related that the Prophet said: “If a person does not avoid false talk and false conduct during Siyam, then Allah does not care if he abstains from food and drink” (Bukhari, Muslim).
Forgetfully eating or drinking while fasting
11. Abu Huraira related that Rasulullah said: “If anyone forgets that he is fasting and eats or drinks he should complete his Siyam, for it is Allah who has fed him and given him drink” (Bukhari, Muslim).
Providing for those who are breaking the fast
12. Zaid ibn Khalid Juhni related that the Prophet said: “He who provides for the breaking of the Siyam of another person earns the same merit as the one who was observing Siyam diminishing in any way the reward of the latter” (Tirmidhi).
13. Aisha related that the Prophet said: “Look for Lailat al-Qadr on an odd-numbered night during the last ten nights of Ramadan” (Bukhari).
14. Anas ibn Malik related that Rasulullah (pbuh) said: “When Lailat al-Qadr comes, Gabriel descends with a company of angels who ask for blessings on everyone who is remembering Allah, whether they are sitting or standing” (Baihaqi).
15. Narrated Ibn ‘Umar: Some men amongst the companions of the Prophet were shown in their dreams that the night of Qadr was in the last seven nights of Ramadan. Allah’s Apostle said, “It seems that all your dreams agree that (the Night of Qadr) is in the last seven nights, and whoever wants to search for it (i.e. the Night of Qadr) should search in the last seven (nights of Ramadan).” [Bukhari]
16. Narrated ‘Aisha: Allah’s Apostle said, “Search for the Night of Qadr in the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan.” [Bukhari]
17. Narrated ‘Aisha: Allah’s Apostle used to practice Itikaf in the last ten nights of Ramadan and used to say, “Look for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan.” [Bukhari]
18. Narrated Ibn Abbas: The Prophet said, “Look for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of Ramadan ,’ on the night when nine or seven or five nights remain out of the last ten nights of Ramadan (i.e. 21, 23, 25, respectively).” [Bukhari]
19. Narrated ‘Ubada bin As-Samit: The Prophet came out to inform us about the Night of Qadr but two Muslims were quarreling with each other. So, the Prophet said, “I came out to inform you about the Night of Qadr but such-and-such persons were quarreling, so the news about it had been taken away; yet that might be for your own good, so search for it on the 29th, 27th and 25th (of Ramadan). [Bukhari]